Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Franklin D. Roosevelt "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation" Analysis

The Japanese Empire bombarded Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 it was a surprise attack to the United States. This event caused the loss of many innocent people as well as material destruction to the country. Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president during that time, his duty was to address both, the nation and the Congress to inform them about what had happened he did this through his speech “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation”. The speech was extremely important, not only because of how delicate was the subject, but also because he had the challenge to inform two very different audiences about the occurred. His first audience was Congress which was important because in the end they would determine whether or not to go to war. Also the nation would listen to this speech, while Congress got to see and hear him during the speech Americans would only hear the speech through radio, which made this an even harder task to accomplish.

However, Franklin D. Roosevelt did a truly amazing job addressing both the nation and Congress because he did not focus on only one audience. He clearly addresses both audiences when he says, “I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people...” he takes both opinions into consideration. By doing this Roosevelt gives equal importance to the nation and to Congress, which helps him get a positive response from both audiences. This shows that he successfully informed the nation and Congress about the war and both audiences understood. He accomplished two things at once because by addressing both audiences in one speech he shows that he had them both in mind. He did not include the kind of language that the nation would not understand just because he was talking to congress. Also he did not deliver the speech on a manner that would not be appropriate for Congress he used just the right language that would be understood by both audiences.

Another important aspect of this speech that made it so successful is the way that he delivered the speech. He knew that the nation would be listening to the speech and he obviously knew that Congress would be present when he would be delivering the speech. Therefore he had to use a tone that would accomplish the purpose of the speech. This had two purposes first to inform his audience about the occurred and second and most important to keep the nation calmed and assure them safety. He does this when he informs the audience that, “the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked…” although this was something very shocking he managed to stay calmed and transmit that to others. He also assures safety, “I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense…” which gives the nation some kind of tranquility knowing that things are being taken care of. Roosevelt’s tone was very calm yet very powerful as it is shown in Fig. 1, when he is presenting his speech to Congress and the nation.

Figure 1 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." 8 December 1941.

As a result of Roosevelt’s capability to address two audiences at once and to deliver the speech with an appropriate and effective tone the speech was very successful. He successfully informed the audience about what happened without causing confusing in neither of them. He used the appropriate language to address both the Congress and the nation. Roosevelt was also aware that his speech would be presented to the audience in two forms, via radio for the nation and in person to the Congress. This played a big role in how he delivered the speech but he managed it very well and used a tone that projected confidence in providing safety for the nation and was powerful enough to ensure that things would be taken care of.

Work Cited
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." 8 December 1941.


Work Consulted
"Pearl Harbor History: Why Did Japan Attack? Eyewitness Accounts, Casualty List, Background." Attack on Pearl Harbor: Ships, Heroes and Speeches. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. .

“YouTube - Franklin D. Roosevelt - Declaration of War." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 6 Oct. 2010.

Preventing Atomic Annihilation: "Atoms for Peace"

The 1950s were a time of great time of American prosperity; the country had just won World War II and was riding on postwar hype. However, this was overshadowed by conflicts with the communist Soviet Union during the cold war. The world was fearful of the differing viewpoints of the two world powers, and the possibility of total war between democratic and communistic governments. This fear was intensified by the sheer destruction that could be caused by a new weapon used during World War II, the atomic bomb. This technology was in the hands of both the Soviet Union and the United States, and total war between these two countries could lead to global annihilation. To address this issue, Dwight D. Eisenhower was invited to speak in front of the United Nations General Assembly in his speech "Atoms for Peace." Eisenhower's use of language effectively conveys to his audience the severity of the situation and firmly establishes America's stance on this issue.

The world was on edge about the conflicting viewpoints of the United States and the Soviet Union. In his speech Eisenhower had to defend the United States on its nuclear program while calming the world about the possibilities of atomic fallout. He does this effectively with his use of language in several situations. Even though many of the countries at the United Nations did not have atomic arms, Eisenhower unites the assembly by stating, "if a danger exists in the world, it is a danger shared by all; and equally, that if hope exists in the mind of one nation, that hope should be shared by all." Through this statement he establishes that the world should have hope in the face of danger. Later in his speech Eisenhower also addresses that this technology will not always be held by a select few nations and expresses a point, "First, the knowledge now possessed by several nations will eventually be shared by others, possibly all others." This also brings the issue of atomic weapons to all of the nations through establishing that this technology may be obtained by all and the possibility of what to do with this is shared by all. In figure 1, the vast number of people Eisenhower addresses is shown and the difficulty he would have had to unite the entire assembly, divided by language and culture, to the issue of atomic warfare.

Figure 1 “Dwight D. Eisenhower: Atoms for Peace.” Photograph. 8 Dec. 1953 American Rhetoric. Web. 4 Oct. 2010.


Although Eisenhower seeks to unify the world, he does not shy away from the United States' stance on Atomic war and defines what the nation will do to address this issue. Throughout his speech Eisenhower states the power that the United States has and the will not to use it, although the United States will to defend itself. This is exemplified when Eisenhower states, "the retaliation capabilities of the Unites States are so great that such an aggressor's land would be laid waste, all this, while fact, is not the true expression of the purpose and the hope of the United States." This use of language shows the firm, resolute view of the United States without making the United States seem like a nation bent on warfare. In addition to stating the strength of the United States he also introduces the possibility of all the nations with atomic power to use some of that power to develop an agency devoted to the use of atomic power for peaceful methods. The strong language used throughout the speech shows the desire for a peaceful solution but also the United States firm stance on atomic warfare and the defense of the United States policies thus far.

The importance of this issue has not dwindled as several countries are developing nuclear weapons and world's stockpile of nuclear weapons still increases. However, through this speech the International Atomic Energy Agency was created, which has regulated and promoted peaceful use of atomic energy. Eisenhower's speech was effective in defending American policies and to establish a peaceful use for atomic energy rather than for war.

Work Cited

Eisenhower, Dwight D. "Atoms for Peace." United Nations General Assembly. 8 Dec. 1953.

American Rhetoric. Web. 4 Oct. 2010.

Work Consulted

"Cold War in the 1950s." Global Security. Ed. John Pike. N.p., 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2010


Barbara Jordan: Statement on the Articles of Impeachment

The Watergate scandal is an event that will be forever burned into the history of America. It will forever hinder the trust we, as American citizens, have for our leader because of the betrayal we suffered during Nixon’s reign; this is the view of impeachment enthusiast Barbara Jordan, who’s speech on the matter effectively persuaded her audience. In her “Statement on the Articles of Impeachment” speech she expresses to the chairmen of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee her standpoint and reasons as to why the president should be impeached. She effectively persuades her audience by connecting to them on a legal plain and thoughtfully transitioning to her main point and reasoning statements.

After connecting to her audience with her “We the people” statements, she transitioned to her implications stating the fact that the constitution allows the impeachment of the president at the time. “It is wrong, I suggest, it is a misreading of the Constitution for any member here to assert that for a member to vote for an article of impeachment means that that member must be convinced that the President should be removed from office. The Constitution doesn't say that.” (Jordan 1) She’s implicating that even though the president was not convicted of the crimes he is accused of he is still not immune to impeachment. This is an effective strategy because she does not come out and say she wants to impeach the president, she lets you have your own thoughts in the beginning with her own spin on it, subtly projecting her opinions into the audiences thoughts.

Finishing off her speech, Jordan seamlessly goes on from subtly implying an idea, to thoroughly elaborating on her viewpoint of what has been going on politically during the time. “The President has made public announcements and assertions bearing on the Watergate case, which the evidence will show he knew to be false.” This is an impressive transition because her speech never tells you what to do, or tell you what to think; the speech allows for free thought on the subject, but gives some enlightening facts that will, more often than not, persuade the audience to see her side of the issue. All of these facts are actions of the president that showed him to be a liar to the press, the government, and the public. Evidence was given to put the president in an illegal situation, but not enough to convict; enough evidence, however, was given to prove the president was untrustworthy, which was her overall main point. She was not the only one who believed in this, which led to Nixon's resignation from office portrayed below in figure 1.

President Nixon leaving the White House


Figure 1. Nixon, Richard. "Nixon leaving the white house" August 9, 1974. Nixonarchives.gov. 5 Oct. 2010

Boiling it down to the basics, Jordan wanted an impeachment, whether she flat out said it or not. She presented this to the chairmen in a non-forceful but extremely effective manner. Smooth transitions, varying levels of implications, and a climax in an informative speech placed it appropriately in America’s top 100 speeches. Although Nixon was never technically impeached, he was well on his way. If there were any uncertain ears in Barbara Jordan’s audience, they were no longer so after her speech.

Work Cited
Jordan, Barbara Charline "Statement on the Articles of Impeachment". 25 July 1974. American Rhetoric. Web. 5 Oct. 2010

Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Pearl harbor Address to the Nation

There are few pains worse than being betrayed by a friend.

On December 7th, 1941, Japan committed that action with the bombing of Pearl Harbor naval base. An attack on a country Japan was up to then at peace with; an attack that claimed over 2,000 lives. The whole country was shocked, and waited to hear from the president. The next day Franklin Delano Roosevelt addressed the nation with his sympathy, and plans for action. Addressing Congress and the nation FDR reviewed the offenses Japan had recently launched, and said, “Since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire” verifying the daunting realization that America was at war.


Figure 1 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." 8 December 1941.



Roosevelt’s speech in response to the attack was bold and direct. He stood in front of congress with the confidence he had the support of the nation. He states, “The people of the United States have already formed their opinions”; they had no choice but to act. The speech strengthened Americans patriotism, and affirmed America’s participation in World War II. Throughout the speech Roosevelt spoke with the same confidence illustrated in that quote; giving the speech a comforting tone. He used that tone to reassure the trust and gain the support of every American, which was essential for the United States victory.

In harmony with his confident tone, FDR reinstated multiple times that the attacks were premeditated. He began his speech with a sentence including that “America was suddenly and deliberately attacked”. By portraying that the attacks were planed out days ahead, Roosevelt was able to increase the disdain the American people felt toward Japan. FDR effectively notified the nation that Japan was then an enemy, and America’s security was at risk. Keeping the same tone, he assures America that the US Army and the determination of the people will gain the inevitable triumph.

The speech was well written and direct. Roosevelt clearly demonstrated his stance of declaring war on Japan to Congress and the nation. Knowing he had both the support of the representatives and civilians. His confident tone motivated the American people to take action toward Japan. World War II has since become regarded as the most important war America had experienced. In the beginning, WWII boosted the economy out of The Great Depression, but like all wars ended with great loss of life. Franklin’s “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation” was composed at the start of it all, and is one of history’s most significant speeches. Roosevelt’s speech is ranked the 4th most important speech of the 20th century on American Rhetoric. A fair placement for a symbol of --a date which will live in infamy--

Works Cited

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." 8 December 1941.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." . 8 December 1941.
American Rhetoric. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.

Works Consulted

"Pearl Harbor attack." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.



After midnight, on June 5, 1968, Robert Francis Kennedy, brother of John F. Kennedy, was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan at the Ambassador Hotel after having won California’s Democratic presidential primary. During this period of time, the secret service was only responsible for protecting presidents, not presidential candidates; therefore, Kennedy was left vulnerable. Figure 1 shows how Kennedy fell to the ground after being shot in the head, neck, and chest. Approximately twenty-six hours later, Kennedy died at Good Samaritan Hospital. Sirhan was convicted of murder and was sentenced to life in prison. On June 8, 1968, Edward M. Kennedy gave the eulogy at his brother’s funeral. He addressed the public as they mourned Robert F. Kennedy’s death. In delivering the eulogy, Edward M. Kennedy demonstrates strength in his ability to comfort the public; while also displaying emotion as he, too, mourns the death of his brother. Through describing what Robert was like, and through Robert’s own words, Edward Kennedy is able to comfort the public by establishing a new sense of hope.Figure 2 shows Edward Kennedy delivering the eulogy before family, friends, and the entire nation. Although delivered more than forty years ago, what makes Edward M. Kennedy’s speech memorable, significant, and successful is how he is able to comfort his audience through his words, his displays of emotion, and the way his speech makes the public relate to the tragedy.


Kennedy’s ability to comfort through his eulogy at a time of loss and mourning makes his speech significant to audiences. According to Kennedy, “He will always be by our side,” by leaving the people “what he said, what he did, and what he stood for.” In stating this, Kennedy comforts those around him by explaining that Robert Kennedy’s plans and accomplishments for society would long out live him. In closing Robert Kennedy’s eulogy, Edward Kennedy asks the audience to “pray that what he was to us and what he wished for others will some day come to pass for all the world.” Kennedy creates a new sense of hope in people by calling his audience to action to fulfill Robert Kennedy’s plans for society despite his loss.


Kennedy’s display of emotion in the delivery of his speech gives the eulogy deeper meaning. While Kennedy expresses, “We loved him as a brother, and as a father, and as a son. From his parents and from his older brothers and sisters -- Joe and Kathleen and Jack -- he received an inspiration which he passed on to all of us,” as well as other personal information, a quiver in his voice is heard. Clearly, he tries to hold back tears in attempt to remain strong in his delivery of the eulogy. However, the fact that this quiver in his voice is heard from time to time throughout the speech, it gives the eulogy more meaning by establishing the tone of mourning compared to being a celebration of Robert Kennedy’s accomplishments in life.


The greater significance of the eulogy comes in the form of Kennedy delivering it in a way that made the tragedy relatable to the public. The eulogy is not just addressed to the family of Robert F. Kennedy. Kennedy declares, “On behalf of Mrs. Kennedy, her children, the parents and sisters of Robert Kennedy, I want to express what we feel to those who mourn with us today in this Cathedral and around the world.” From the opening of his speech, he addresses his audience before him in the cathedral and those around the nation watching or hearing the speech be delivered from their home. In addition, through addressing the family and the public, he states how they are all mourning the loss of Robert Kennedy together. As in stating, “He gave us strength in time of trouble, wisdom in time of uncertainty, and sharing in time of happiness. He will always be by our side,” Kennedy uses pronouns such as “us” and “our” to relate what Robert Kennedy did for people to his entire audience. Further in his speech, Kennedy goes on to explain what the public knew Robert Kennedy as having done for them; thus, he made it more apparent as to why his brother’s death was a great loss to all. By describing what Robert Kennedy did for society throughout his lifetime, Edward Kennedy establishes a everyman persona for his brother by explaining, “My brother need not be idealized, or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life; to be remembered simply as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it.” Therefore, he also accomplishes to make Robert Kennedy relatable as a person to the public.


Overall, although being a well written speech, the greater significance of the eulogy comes as a whole; through its delivery and its content. Edward Kennedy’s eulogy speech is successful due to the fact that he addressed society as a whole. Also, in displaying his emotions, he said something real; he spoke from the heart. When necessary, his confidence and strength allowed him to put aside his own pain and mourning in order to accomplish comforting others and providing them with hope of what would be rather than what could’ve been.


Work Cited

Kennedy, Edward M. "Address at the Public Memorial Service for Robert F.
Kennedy." American Rhetoric. Michael E. Eidenmuller, n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.
.


Works Consulted

Simkin, John. "Robert F. Kennedy: Biography." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d.
Web. 5 Oct. 2010. USAkennedyR.htm>.

John F. Kennedy’s “Ich bin ein Berliner” Analysis

Americans have always learned about the splitting of Germany between the Allies (US, France, and England) and the Soviet Union. The Allies were given West Germany and the Soviet Union, East. The only problem with the Soviets having East Germany was that housed in this portion of the country was Germany's capital, Berlin. The Allies and the Soviets came to an agreement to also split the city in two. The Soviets used this to their power by cutting off all ground access to West Berlin, the only way to reach it was through the air. Life in East Berlin was horrible, people were forced to live lives they didn't want and there was nothing that they could do but take a risk and cross the border to West Berlin. The Soviets eventually realized this and decided to take action. On August 13, 1961 a wall was built, known as the Berlin Wall, which would change the dynamic of the people of Berlin and life as they knew it. Although around 5,000 people successfully climbed the wall and escaped to freedom, there were many people who became trapped in East Berlin. On June 26th, 1963 in front of Berlin's town hall JFK gave one of the most defining speeches of the Cold War.

At the beginning of the speech he gives a shout-out to both Germany's Chancellor and Berlin's Mayor for keeping the spirit and faith of having a democracy in Germany's near future. He continues with a confident tone in his voice throughout the speech. This speech was not only used as a way to threaten the Soviets but, instill confidence and unify the people of East Berlin. Kennedy reinforced his views on the problem at hand and by almost constantly repeating himself with the words "let them come to Berlin." By doing this, with snippets about the communist believers in between, Kennedy is able to use Berlin as an example to the world that communism is not the answer. Through telling communist followers to come to Berlin and witness first-hand the affects that communism can have on a country he is bringing a realization to the world that democracy compared to communism is a much better option. Kennedy reassured his audience (Fig. 1) that democracy wasn't perfect but was a much better upon saying that, "Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect. But we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in -- to prevent them from leaving us." Kennedy not only reassured the German's by using America as an example, but connected with them by speaking to them in their own language.


Figure 1. John F. Kennedy gives his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in Rudolph Wilde Platz. 26 June 1963. Jfklibrary.com. 5 October 2010.

"Ich bin ein Berliner," the four simple, yet famous words that Kennedy used to convince a country that he had their backs. Through going out of his way and speaking to the people in their own language Kennedy was able to connect with the German's on a deeper level. Kennedy said two phrases in German throughout his brief speech, but he spoke German several times. He used his words to build his speech to a climax and then spoke in German causing great reactions from the crowd. An example of this was his use of the phrase "let them come to Berlin" which after repeating three times in English, he repeated it once more in German, and then once again in English. Through finally saying the German translation "Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen ", Kennedy was able to connect with the people of West Berlin. He was able to unite them as one and make them an unstoppable force to be reckoned with. With Kennedy's word of confidence and comfort the people of West Berlin were unstoppable. While giving this speech Kennedy was able to unify and reassure the people of Berliner that one day communism would be no more.


Kennedy's speech overall was very effective. He was able to not only instill confidence in the Germans that they would overcome and eventually have their own democracy, but he was able to instill fear in the communists. This speech was one of the turning points of the Cold War. Sadly almost five months later in November of 1963 Kennedy was assassinated. After his assassination the plaza in which he gave this world changing speech officially had its name changed from Rudolph Wilde Platz to John F. Kennedy Platz where the confidence and spirit of this great speech will forever live on.




Work Cited:


Kennedy, John F. "Ich bin ein Berliner." American Rhetoric. N.p., 26 June 1963. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.


Work Consulted:


"The Cold War in Berlin." Historical Reasources. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Mueseum, n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.





"I've Been to the Mountaintop" Speech Analysis

During the 1960s, the fight for racial equality began to really pick up speed. During this time, racism was a growing problem that was creating uproars through hate crimes, and violent protests. On April 3, 1968 in Memphis Tennessee, Martin Luther King Jr. (figure 1) gave a moving speech about the unfortunate reality of society. He was able to convey his powerful message of peace by using metaphors and different analogies that people could easily relate to. Not only did Dr. Kings “I’ve Been to the Mountain Top” speech lead to the gradual acceptance of African Americans in what was during that time an all white society, but it gave new freedoms to those who were once discriminated against.
Figure 1. Martin Luther King giving his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech. Photograph. 3 April. 1968 Web. 5 Oct. 2010



Upon starting his speech, Dr. King immediately dives into the issues that he planned on addressing. He explains his picture-perfect America by using metaphors such as, “I would take my mental flight by Egypt and I would watch God's children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or rather across the Red Sea, through the wilderness on toward the promise land. And in spite of its magnificence, I wouldn't stop there.” Martin Luther King wants to convey that he has strong hope for America to change their prejudicial ways. He believes that with the help of everyone in their local communities, we can all come together to obtain equality for people of all races. Dr. King uses an abundance of poetic techniques throughout his speech. His repetitive phrase, “If I had sneezed” (King 1) gives his speech personal style while conveying his metaphor for death. Since death is a very common occurrence in peoples’ lives, Dr. King was able to relate himself and his personal memories to the memories of others.

Dr. King uses his own life experiences in order to get on a more personal level with his audience. He discusses visions of what an ideal America used to look like, “I can remember when Negroes were just going around as Ralph has said, so often, scratching where they didn't itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. But that day is all over” (King 1). Martin Luther King Jr. also reflects on other historically famous speeches such as Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s inaugural speech when he stated, “We have nothing to fear but fear itself” (King 1). By addressing FDR’s speech, Martin Luther king Jr. has provided himself with a very strong and reliable source. He is showing other Americans that not only is he educated in the history of US politics, but also that he is no different than anybody else. He strives to portray the poster image for social equality in society by mentioning such things such as, “We are saying -- We are saying that we are God's children. And that we are God's children; we don't have to live like we are forced to live.” His reference to God builds a more private relationship with his audience. By mentioning such an important figure in Christianity, Dr. King is also able to reach a much broader spectrum of people. By emphasizing the pronoun, “we”, Dr. King reiterates the message that all men are created equal as stated in the US Constitution.

The speech is effective in the sense that Dr. King was able to grab the audiences’ attention by using everyday scenarios as well as in depth metaphors in order to get his message across. His powerful words led to an increase of freedoms for the African American community and tolerance for all Americans. Dr. King’s outstanding public speaking ability and nonviolent persona has influenced the US to celebrate the differences in humanity.


Works Cited
King, Martin Luther. "I've Been to the Mountaintop." Memphis, Tennessee. 3 April 1968. American Rhetoric. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.


Flaherty, Benjamin, Jeff Seidman, and Marshall McLelland. Cyberlearning-world. 1991. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.





Works Consulted
"Martin Luther King - Biography." Nobelprize.org. Web. 05 Oct. 2010. .





John F. Kennedy: Ich bin ein Berliner


Fig. 1. 19 May 2008 (The Times).

"Let them come to Berlin." This famous line used in John F. Kennedy's speech to West Berlin, in 1963, is a response to those that believe that communism and democracy can coexist in the world. However, West Berlin is direct proof that the chance for freedom can and will win out over communism, as it is impossible for the two to manage together peacefully in the world. Berlin demonstrated this notion during the Berlin Crisis. The communistic country of the Soviet Union tried to starve the American sector of Berlin into becoming communists by disallowing food and supplies to reach Berlin. America then proceeded to airlift supplies to West Berlin. Although the West Berliners were skeptical of America's intentions at first, the chance for freedom became more important than food or supplies. John F. Kennedy's speech delivered to West Berlin not only commemorated the Berliners on their fight over communism but also inspired his audience to put an end to communism in all parts of the world. Kennedy's passionate tone and his ability to connect with his audience influenced the Berliners and nations to hope for a free world without the constraints of communism.

Kennedy successfully captures the attention of his audience in his first paragraph by the use of words such as: "proud," "distinguished," "fighting spirit," "democracy," "freedom," and "progress." These words automatically instill the feeling of honor among the Berliners. Kennedy is able to demonstrate his respectful stance towards the Berliners through these strong words. Kennedy also reaches his audience by the phrase, "…to come here in the company of my fellow American, General Clay, who has been in this city during its great moments of crisis and will come again if ever needed." General Clay had been the administrator in Germany during the Berlin Crisis and helped to make the Berlin Airlift possible while encouraging Berlin's fight for democracy. Kennedy was successful in connecting with his audience through the mention of Clay because most of his audience lived during the Berlin Airlift and think very highly of Clay and his role in Berlin's deliverance. As a result of these techniques, the Berliners received Kennedy and his ideas about communism and democracy much more readily.


Kennedy's response, "Let them come to Berlin," to different communist theories about society demonstrates his passionate and inspirational tone. By this phrase, he commemorates West Berlin on its achievement over thwarting communism. Kennedy's purpose during this part of his speech is to inspire other countries to fight communism. For those that doubt a world without communism, they need only to come to Berlin to witness the effects of communism and the power of democratic spirits.

Towards the end of his speech, Kennedy connects Berlin's situation to the situation of the rest of the world. He highlights Berlin as a prime example of a city currently divided by the oppressions of communism, by a wall dividing the East and West divisions, but argues that Berlin and the rest of the world should not give up hope for a free world. His passionate tone fills reader and listener alike with feelings of freedom and the need to change the world for the better, to rid the world of communism.


John F. Kennedy's speech, Ich bin ein Berliner, successfully inspires the audience to embrace democracy to its fullest. To beat communism would be the greatest achievement of all for the world, but to be a Berliner is to be the model for the free world.





Work Cited


Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. "Ich bin ein Berliner." West Berlin, Germany. 26 June
1963. American Rhetoric. Web. 1 Oct. 2010.




Work Consulted


Cherny, Andrei. The Candy Bombers: the Untold Story of the Berlin Airlift and America's Finest Hour." New York: Penguin Group, 2008. Print.







"The Four Freedoms"

In 1940, war was raging in Europe and the U.S. was heavily considering getting involved; its allies were being attacked and freedom and democracy were being threatened. This was the hotly debated issue when it came time for President Roosevelt to give his State of the Union address, as seen in Figure 1. In the address commonly known as FDR’s “Four Freedoms” speech, he accomplishes his purpose of inspiring the nation to go to war through patriotic appeal and by emphasizing his points through the use of repetition.


Figure 1. "Franklin D. Roosevelt." 6 January 1941. Photograph. American Rhetoric. 5 Oct. 2010

FDR receives applause numerous times during the address, most often at patriotic moments. This shows that the people in Congress are supportive of him in his efforts to inspire the American people to also support joining the war. When FDR describes the kind of tyranny that the Nazis are setting up in Europe and Asia, he states that “The American people have unalterably set their faces against that tyranny,” and goes further to say that those in charge of the Nazi movement are seeking, or will eventually, to “clip the wings of the American eagle in order to feather their own nests.” In doing so, he makes a powerful appeal to American patriotism. As he concludes the address, FDR espouses four basic freedoms that he argues should be had by everyone—“everywhere in the world”: the freedoms of speech and worship, already guaranteed to Americans by the Constitution, and freedom from both want and fear. These ideas ring true with the American mindset that “all men are created equal,” making for another hard-hitting patriotic appeal.

FDR’s use of repetition in his speeches is one of the reasons he is regarded in the nation’s history as an excellent public speaker. While discussing the necessity of sending aid to European nations under assault by Nazi forces, he lists three components of U.S. foreign policy, all of which defend his sending of supplies to Europe. They are that America is committed to an all-inclusive national defense, to support any nation who defends its freedom by not submitting to dictatorship, and that America will not submit to dictatorship in the name of peace. He precedes each with the phrase “by an impressive expression of the public will and without regard to partisanship.” By doing so, he both clearly states that Americans in general, regardless of political party, support these policies—another evocation of patriotism—and subtly implies that each one carries equal importance and worth, further increasing the worth of the whole. In mentioning each of the four freedoms, FDR contends that it should be had “everywhere” or “anywhere in the world.” This tactic helps accomplish his goal because it causes his listeners to think of how these freedoms, many if not all of which they themselves have, are being threatened overseas by the Nazis.

The “Four Freedoms” speech is successful in rallying the American people to join the war effort in Europe. Normal Rockwell immortalized the speech by making four paintings, each dedicated to one of the four freedoms and all used as a visual tool to advocate buying war bonds, which were essentially IOUs to the Federal government, the money from which would be used to create supplies for the European nations. Thanks in part to President Roosevelt’s timely rally cry to war, the Allies were able to defeat the Nazi oppression.

Work Cited

Roosevelt, Franklin D. “The Four Freedoms.” American Rhetoric. N.p., 6 January 1941. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.

Work Consulted

Kratz, Jessie. "Special Display Of State Of The Union Addresses For Press Only." National Archives. N.p., 26 Jan. 2005. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.

John F. Kennedy’s “Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association” Analysis

In the 1960 presidential election, Richard Nixon vs. John F. Kennedy (figure 1), Kennedy was first to be nominated in the first ballot. However, because he was a Catholic John Kennedy had doubts about his ability to win the election. On September 12, 1960, at Rice Hotel in Houston, Texas John F. Kennedy addressed the Houston Ministerial Association he states that "not what kind is church I believe in, for that should be important only to me-but what kind of America I believe in." Kennedy expressed to the audience that he was for the separation of church and state, and that the Constitution was above the dictates of the church when it comes to politics. Being a certain religion should not affect a person's ability to win the presidential election, they should be judged on their capability of being a good leader for our country.



Figure 1: "John F. Kennedy: Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association" Sept. 12.1960. American Rhetoric. Web. 5 October 2010



"I believe in an America…," Kennedy uses these words repeatedly throughout his speech to emphasize his beliefs on how America should be. He says "The real issues in the campaign have been obscured perhaps deliberately." The issues he addresses are the spread of Communist, treatment of President and Vice President by people who don't respect their power, and people living in poverty; the campaign should be decided on these issues not religion. JFK makes a connection to his audience by addressing the fact that next it might be their personal religion that the finger of suspicion is pointed at. Kennedy points out that the President should be able to fulfill anything his office requires of him; and whose fulfillment of his office is not limited or conditioned by any religious oath, ritual, or obligation. He makes a personal connection by announcing his involvement in the war in the South Pacific and his brother dying for our country in Europe. This is the kind of America that our forefathers died for; they fled to our country to escape religious test that denied office to members of less favored churches. He quotes, "the freedoms for which our forefathers died."

Kennedy clearly states that he wants to be judged on his fourteen years in the Congress, stands against an Ambassador to the Vatican, against unconstitutional aid to parochial schools and against any boycotting in schools. Any decisions JFK makes will be from the best judgment of him as a President not as a Catholic. The decision Issues on birth control, divorce, gambling, or any other subject will be made in accordance of the nation's interest. However, a Catholic may believe this is impossible to do because of their beliefs. If he should lose the election after being judged fairly he shall return to his seat in the Senate.

JFK closes his speech by stating his oath, "I solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to my best ability preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution, so help me God." Overall Kennedy's address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association was a success. He successfully emphasize that his religion will not get in the way of making decisions when it comes to the issues we have in America.



Work Cited

Kennedy, F. John. "Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association." American Rhetoric. N.P., Sept. 12.1960. Web. 5 October 2010



Work Consulted

Li, Chien-Pin. "1960: The Road To Camelot." www.kennesaw.edu. Ed. Chien-Pin Li. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.

Day of Infamy

December 7th, 1941 will remain forever in the minds of millions of people. On that day the Japanese naval and air forces deliberately attacked the United States’ navy base at Pearl Harbor. The first wave of Japanese came at 7:53 in the morning. The second wave at 8:55 and by 9:55 it was all over. By 1:00 all the planes were flying back to Japan and the lives of millions changed. The Japanese killed 2,403, destroyed almost 200 planes and crippled the Pacific Fleet. The next day President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed the nation with the sole purpose of declaring war.

After Roosevelt states who his audience is by saying “Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Senate, and of the House of Representatives”, he goes right into his speech. He states that “December 7th, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy –“, which tells congress that what President Roosevelt is about say about the event that took place the day before is going to be really important. He goes on and discusses how “It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago”, this shows congress that the Japanese took their time to plan out these attacks as to make it as ‘unnoticeable’ as possible. Former President Roosevelt is shown addressing the congress in Figure 1.Figure 1. Franklin Roosevelt giving Pear Harbor Speech. Photograph. 8 December. 1941 Web. 5 Oct. 2010

Further into the speech Roosevelt discusses the other attacks that happened the day before. “Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island”, he words it in such a manner to inform congress that we were not the only ones who were deliberately attacked and that we need to do something quick. Not only was Roosevelt addressing congress, he was also addressing the people who were tuning in to hear him. Roosevelt was trying to calm the American people by telling them “No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.” Roosevelt also wants to bring the Japanese to justice like everyone else

Towards the end of the speech Roosevelt describes his plan to declare war on Japan. He states “I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us”, this tells not only congress and the American people but also the Japanese that we are going to do something about the attacks and the Japanese better watch out. He also explains that “Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger”, he is saying that Japan has hurt our country terribly but we will fight back without hesitation.

“I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire”, Roosevelt persuades congress to declare war on the Japanese so we can protect our nation. This all happened due to the fact that Roosevelt knew what he was talking about and made sure he used the right words to get the nation hyped up. When Roosevelt is finished delivering everyone gives his a standing ovation and cheer. (Figure 2)

Figure 1. Roosevelt, Franklin. "Day of Infamy Speech" Speech. 8 December 1941. Youtube. 5 October 2010.




Works Cited

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." . 8 December 1941.
American Rhetoric. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.



Works Consulted


"Attack at Pearl Harbor, 1941." EyeWitness to History. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Oct.
2010.

Ronald Reagan’s “The Space Shuttle ‘Challenger’ Tragedy Address” Analysis

On January 28, 1986, the space shuttle Challenger was making its tenth flight into space. This shuttle had a crew of seven including a teacher from the Teachers in Space program. Seventy-three seconds after the shuttle was launched, a fire erupted and the shuttle exploded, finally landing in the ocean. President Ronald Reagan had originally planned on speaking on the state of the Union at that time; however, the events of that morning created a new need to address the nation. In President Reagan's "The Space Shuttle 'Challenger' Tragedy Address", his purpose was to address the nation on the issue and offer his condolences to the friends and family of the Challenger Seven who had died that morning while more so encouraging further space exploration to beat the Soviet Union.


President Reagan establishes at the beginning that "today is a day for mourning and remembering" to show his grief over the tragedy that morning had brought to the American people. His speech was full of compassion for the families of the seven astronauts who had died that morning as he admits that "we cannot bear, as you do, the full impact of this tragedy" (Reagan). Reagan is showing respect for the families by openly admitting he cannot understand completely their loss that morning while still reminding them that "we feel the loss, and we are thinking about you so very much". The nation is brought together during this tragedy while "we mourn their loss as a nation together" (Reagan), reminding everyone that the whole nation knew about the tragedy and was devastated by the accident the "Challenger" had gone through that morning. Reagan is able to meet every need of his audience by informing the nation, showing his own personal grief, and offering an explanation to the school children that "sometimes painful things like this happen. It's all part of the process of exploration and discovery". Figure one is an example of President Reagan's sorrow shown through his solemn tone while giving his speech to the nation, offering his condolences and encouragement.


Fig. 1 Reagan, Ronald. "Ronald Reagan The Space Shuttle 'Challenger' Tragedy Address." Speech. 28 January 1986. Youtube. 5 October 2010.

The encouragement to further space exploration is prevalent in Reagan's speech, stating "We'll continue our quest in space. There will be more shuttle flights…". He believes "The future doesn't belong to the fainthearted; it belongs to the brave" (Reagan), meaning the United States cannot give up after one incident because "Nothing ends here; our hopes and our journeys continue" (Reagan). President Reagan provides "we are still pioneers"; no one can expect everything to go perfectly every time, giving reason that the United States' space program has to continue. The speech allows the listener to keep their faith in the space program as their president does by stating "I've always had great faith in and respect for our space program. And what happened today does nothing to diminish it" (Reagan). Reagan's wish to have a more advanced and better respected space program than the Soviet Union is apparent. "We don't hide our space program. We don't keep secrets and cover things up. We do it all up front and in public. That's the way freedom is, and we wouldn't change it for a minute" (Reagan). His rather open disapproval of the way the Soviet Union is operating their space program provides information on the issue of space exploration between the United States and the Soviet Union; their Space Race is not yet over.


Reagan successfully meets all of the requirements his speech, and the tragedy, brought to him. He is able to sympathize with the families and friends of the "Challenger Seven" while also bringing the nation together in a time of tragedy. President Reagan reminds the nation "And perhaps we've forgotten the courage of the crew of the shuttle". He wants them remembered as heroes, and so refers to them as such in his speech. While speaking directly to the schoolchildren who were watching the shuttle launch, Reagan comforts them and reassures the nation that space exploration must, and will, continue. The president wants everyone to embrace the same spirit as the "Challenger Seven", "Give me a challenge, and I'll meet it with joy" (Reagan).

Works Cited

Reagan, Ronald. "Space Shuttle 'Challenger' Tragedy Address."American Rhetoric.Np.,28 Jan. 1986.Web.5 Oct. 2010

Works Consulted

“Challenger Disaster.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. http://www.history.com/‌topics/‌challenger-disaster.


“The Space Race.” Digital History. N.p., 5 Oct. 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2010. .

John F. Kennedy's "Ich bin ein Berliner" Speech Analysis

In 1961, East Berliners became prisoners in their own homes. Post World War II Germany was divided into four occupation zones. As a result, Berlin was split in two. East Berlin was under Russian control while West Berlin was under American, British and French jurisdiction. To prevent Germans in the Soviet side of Berlin (East) from fleeing to the free Western side, a 12 foot-high, 100 mile-long wall was built surrounding East Berlin, separating it from the Western half. This became known as the Berlin Wall. On June 26, 1963, John F. Kennedy (Figure 1) visited West Berlin and delivered the speech "Ich bin ein Berliner" (I am a Berliner). Throughout his speech, JFK attacks the Communist system of government and reassures the citizens of Berlin that one day they will be reunited with their Eastern brothers and sisters.


Figure 1. “John F. Kennedy.” 1963. Photograph. 4umi. Web. 4 Oct 2010.

John F. Kennedy uses Berlin as the prime example of the failure of Soviet Russia’s Communist government. This is evident when JFK announces, “The wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system”. He then goes to say that not only is the Communist system of government unsuccessful, it is also “an offense against humanity”. It tears families apart and exploits the citizens within. JFK brings this point to light when he claims “there are even a few who say it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress”. After JFK makes the claims that “there are some who say”, he follows them up with “Let them come to Berlin”. He does this to amplify the negative effects Communism has on the public. There were a total of 238 confirmed deaths at the wall. It is estimated that over 1,000 Berliners were killed attempting to escape. JFK compares Communism to the free countries of the world when he states, “Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect. But we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in -- to prevent them from leaving us”.

JFK encourages West Berlin to remain strong when he says "I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force, and the hope, and the determination of the city of West Berlin". He lets West Berlin know that they are not alone. Countries across the continent and across the sea have been following their story since the beginning. JFK reassures that Berlin will once again be one great city with the lines, "When all are free, then we look -- can look forward to that day when this city will be joined as one ... When that day finally comes, as it will, the people of West Berlin can take sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in the front lines for almost two decades". Promoting democracy and freedom in Europe is also a strategic move. With essentially the world as his audience, the citizens of West Berlin being his primary, speaking of the evil that is Communism will show that any country that decides to enforce this system of government will not be an ally of the United States and will be frowned upon in society.

Months before his assassination, John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin and delivered one of the most compelling and inspiring speeches. He shed light on the city of Berlin and revealed the cracks in the Communist system. Berliners cheered and roared when he spoke the words "Ich bin ein Berliner". He made himself one with the people and praised them for their determination throughout their seemingly futile fight against oppression.

Works Cited
 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald. "Ich bin ein Berliner." West Berlin, Germany. 26 June
     1963. American Rhetoric. Web. 1 Oct. 2010.

Works Consulted
 Cohen, Andrew. "Going to the Wall." Ottawa Citizen. 24 June 2008, Final ed., News
     sec.: n. pag. eLibrary. Web. 1 Oct. 2010.
 "The Cold War and the Iron Curtain." Frontline. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Oct.
     2010.
 "Great Speeches Collection: John F. Kennedy." The History Place. N.p., n.d. Web.
     3 Oct. 2010.

Ronald Reagan’s Challenger Speech Analysis

On January 28th, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded upon takeoff killing astronauts; Michael Smith, Dick Scobee, Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair, Ellison Onizuka, Gregory Jarvis, and school teacher Sharon Christa McAuliffe. This event was viewed by many, including schoolchildren, who tuned in to watch the takeoff. This unfortunate tragedy called for former President, Ronald Reagan, to address the issue. Reagan answered the call with his famous speech, "Shuttle `Challenger' Disaster Address", which he not only addressed the issue, but he comforted those who viewed it, commemorated the brave astronauts for their service, and encouraged future space quest. Ronald Reagan was candid in delivering the focus of his message, while still exhibiting empathy in his tone.

He shows empathy in many aspects of his demeanor. The first and most noticeable sign of empathy in his speech was when he said, "Nancy and I are pained to the core by the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger." He addresses not only himself, but his wife also, in an attempt to bring the speech on a more personal basis. He then says that, "We share this pain with all off the people of our country." He broadens his viewpoint to cover all Americans, by delivering it this way, he paints himself as a leader and also as a person that feels pain. He goes on to talk about the significance of this accident and how we the American people have never had to experience anything like this in the last 19 years. He is candid when he argues that the challenger seven knew what they were getting into; "But they, the challenger seven, were aware of the dangers". He says this, to show that this event was not completely impossible. Later on in his speech when he says, "We're still pioneers" and "But sometimes painful things like this happen. It's all part of the process of exploration and discovery." He is candid in alluding to the idea that this event is not as devastating as it may seem.




Figure 1 Ronald Reagan delivering the "Challenger Speech" Photograph. 28 Jan. 1986 Ronald Reagan Library Web. 4 Oct. 2010


Ronald Reagan states that, "For the families of the seven, we cannot bear, as you do the full impact of this tragedy." He puts himself at the same level as family to show that his sympathy is just as heartfelt as the family of the seven. He goes on to talk about how they, the astronauts, died a brave and courageous death while doing something they love; they died as "pioneers". The nature he used when he expressed his feelings caused him to sound like a chaplain—empathetic yet encouraging. Afterwards, he addresses the youth that were watching; "And I want to say something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live coverage of the shuttle's take-off." He acknowledges them because the youth are the next-generation workers of this country. Also by addressing the schoolchildren, he creates a sense of comfort to his audience.

The main point of his massage was to offer condolences to those affected by the accident, remind us that this is just part of the process of exploration, and to advocate future space quest. He supported this claim when he said, "We'll continue our quest in space." And also when he says, "Nothing ends here; our hopes and our journeys continue." He goes on to talk about the connection between Sir Francis Drake and the astronauts, to show that their dedication, even though it led to their death, was not in vain. It was a stepping stone for future exploration. Overall, throughout his whole speech he is empathizing with those affected by this event, while still getting his main message across. He indicates that we are pained because of the lost, we recognize the loss, and we will move on from this event and look on toward the future.



Work Cited

Reagan, Ronald Wilson. "Challenger Speech." White House. 28 Jan. 1983.
American Rhetoric. Web. 4 Oct. 2010.

Fackelman, Mary Anne "Photograph of Ronald Reagan Delivering the Challenger Speech." 28 Jan. 1986 Ronald Reagan Library Web. 4 Oct. 2010


Work Consulted


The British Antarctic Study, et al. "Space Shuttle Challenger." solcomhouse. Ed.
Charles Welch. The Ozone Hole Inc, 4 Oct. 2010. Web. 4 Oct. 2010.
<http://www.solcomhouse.com/spaceshuttle.htm>.





Bringing a Nation to War

On December 8th, 1941, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt faced one of the most difficult situations a leader of a nation could face, bringing the people into a war, and consoling them in the losses brought about by a completely unexpected and violent attack. The public looked to be both reassured at the loss of the Americans in the attack on Pearl Harbor and giving a call to arms by which the American people would fight a long war that would cost many lives. Roosevelt also spoke, primarily to Congress, but with the knowledge that the entire nation would be listening via the radio. His audience was thus broad, yet requiring the same things. Both audiences, the general public and Congress, required the reassurance and support of a leader, as well as a call to arms. In his “Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation”, President Roosevelt achieved both of these goals, through both the words he used as well as the method with which he said them.

The words and diction that President Roosevelt used were important in bringing the American people into the war. The opening of the speech, which states that the day of Pearl Harbor shall “live in infamy”, does much to show the American people the atrocity of the attack. It also shows that the attacks were very deliberate and planned. This works towards both goals, both consoling the people as well as urging them to see the Japanese attacks as atrocious and that Americans should react as such. The call to arms that Roosevelt is trying to bring about is also evident in the section where he says, “The Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States.” This is meant to rile up anger amongst Americans, as it also reassures them that America will remain strong. A list of grievances follows in the speech, which shows where attacks have fallen in the last twenty-four hours. This too is meant to rile up anger by further showing the complex planning and training that would be involved in such an operation. The last section of the speech is reassuring as well as being a powerful call to arms. The line "With confidence in our armed forces, with the unbounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph -- so help us God" is both a reassurance in the strength of the American people as well as asking them to have confidence themselves and find victory.

The method with which the President used were also critical in bringing the American people into the war. He used a slow method of speaking at the beginning of the speech, and maintained that method of speaking throughout the rest of the speech. The speed at which he was speaking was reassuring and supportive of the people. When the time and purpose called for it, however, Roosevelt would raise his voice and speak with more force to prove a point. This was used during the list of grievances as well as the opening. This method of presentation was, perhaps most famously, used in the line "a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire." This does much to augment his purpose of bring the American people into the war. Also, his facial and body expressions (Figure 1) drive home his meaning to the members of congress.


Figure 1. "Franklin Roosevelt." 1941. Photograph. Web. 5 October 2010.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt faced a difficult task on December 8th, 1941. He had to bring a people that was reluctant to fight into the largest war in history, as well as reassure them. His diction and method of delivery were both critical and successful in making that need a reality.

Work Cited

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano. "Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation." Washington
D.C., United States. 8 December 1941. Web. 5 October 2010.

Eulogy for Robert F. Kennedy/ Political Persuasion



In the photo above, Ted Kennedy is giving the eulogy of his brother. If the speech was more focused on the fond memories of family and brotherhood, the Ted Kennedy should look more emotional. However, he chose to remember him through a motivational speech that Robert F. Kennedy gave. Thus, he only has a plainly concerned fa├žade.

Edward Kennedy gives the eulogy of his brother, American politician, Democratic Senator from New York, Robert Kennedy. This was such a loss for him, being the second time he lost a brother by assassination. With this emotional loss, he gave the eulogy at the funeral on June 8, 1968 at Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in New York. However, his eulogy consisted of lengthy quotes from his brother’s political accomplishments rather than some classic, family memories. Ted Kennedy quoted Robert Kennedy’s achievements in order to remind Americans how he lived and leaves them from a political standpoint.
The eulogy was recorded in film, and so his funeral was seen by most Americans. In the following video, the recording excludes the majority of the speech, but kept focus on the beginning and very end. But what Ted Kennedy said during the main point of his speech was an extensive quote on R.F.K.’s speech to the young people of South Africa on their Day of Affirmation in 1966. It began with,” There is discrimination in this world and slavery and slaughter and starvation. Governments repress their people; millions are trapped in poverty while the nation grows rich and wealth is lavished on armaments everywhere.” (American Rhetoric). R.F.K . was trying to acknowledge that yes, there were terrible evils in the world, but he would continue to say in his speech that “they are the common works of man”. While this was a motivational idea to the people of South Africa, it did not demonstrate emotional ideas for a eulogy. Instead, it impacted the political idea of self- reliability and promoted acts of change.

During the eulogy, this speech continued for the majority. Ted Kennedy left it by saying, “That is the way he lived. That is what he leaves us” (Edward Kennedy). The speech Robert Kennedy gave was to the South African people on their Day of Affirmation, so it does not fit the purpose of remembrance in his eulogy. He finished it by trying to get America to remember how he lived, how he tried to get rights for underprivileged people of America.

Near the end, Ted Kennedy told the country that “my brother need not be idealized, or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life; to be remembered simply as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it.” Clearly, he just used his eulogy of his brother with a major ideal of civil rights and almost denied it by stating that his brother need not be idealized.

Ted Kennedy had a rough time grieving his brothers’ deaths, yet remembered Robert F. Kennedy’s political goals in his eulogy to America.




Work Cited

Kennedy, Edward. "American Rhetoric: Edward M. Kennedy - Eulogy for Robert F. Kennedy." American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United States. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. .

Works Consulted

Kennedy, Robert F. "Day of Affirmation Address (news Release Text Version) - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum." Home - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Web. 06 Oct. 2010. .

"Ted Kennedy's Eulogy for RFK." CBS News. 3 Oct. 2010. Web. 5 Oct. 2010.
.